Italia - Florencia - Loggia del Bigallo
The Loggia del Bigallo is a late Gothic building in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy. It stands at the corner of Piazza San Giovanni and via Calzaioli; tradition holds the site near the Baptistry of Florence was donated by a benefactor.
This building is one of a dozen public loggias in the city, and is linked with two fraternities or companies dealing with local charity.
The Compagnia della Misericordia, or "Company of Mercy", was concerned with the transport of the sick, burial of the indigent dead, as well as the care of orphans. The open loggia served to shelter lost children and unwanted infants who were abandoned to the care of the brotherhood,
The Compagnia di Santa Maria del Bigallo or simply del Bigallo, was founded in 1244 by Saint Peter of Verona, Saint Peter Martyr, and was formerly housed near Orsanmichele. This group focused on the housing of the indigent, and also cared for pilgrims and travellers at their Ospedale di Santa Maria alle Fonti, nicknamed "del Bigallo", at Fonteviva.
Financial irregularities forced the authorities in 1425, under Cosimo de'Medici, treasurer of the Bigallo, to merge the two groups, and reorganize the structure. As time passed, the function of the Bigallo began to dominate that of the Misericordia.
However, it was the Compagnia della Misericordia which had commissioned the structure we see, probably from the architect-sculptor Alberto Arnoldi; it was built in 1352–58. The second story was rebuilt after a fire in 1442. Its two arched bays are richly decorated with bas-reliefs of prophets, angels, the Virtues, a Christ giving the benediction and an Ecce Homo. In 1697, the arches were walled-up in order to provide more space for the oratory that is attached to the loggia; the masonry was removed in 1889, revealing the long-hidden decoration. Mullioned windows pierce the walls of the floor above, which was originally richly frescoed and three tabernacles, the work of Filippo di Cristofano, 1412, frame the Madonna and Child, Saint Lucy and Saint Peter Martyr, patron of the brotherhood. The mid-14th century statues were installed here when the two confraternities joined in 1425.
The interior contains a museum of objects related to the Compagnia del Bigallo.
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Italia - Florencia - Galería Uffizi y Palazzo Vecchio
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Italia - Florencia - Piazza della Signoria - Escultura Perseo de Cellini
Perseus with the Head of Medusa is a bronze sculpture made by Benvenuto Cellini in the period 1545–1554. The sculpture stands upon a square base with bronze relief panels depicting the story of Perseus and Andromeda, similar to a predella on an altarpiece. It is located in the Loggia dei Lanzi of the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Italy. The second Florentine duke, Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, commissioned the work with specific political connections to the other sculptural works in the piazza. When the piece was revealed to the public on 27 April 1554, Michelangelo's David, Bandinelli's Hercules and Cacus, and Donatello's Judith and Holofernes were already erected in the piazza.
The subject matter of the work is the mythological story of Perseus beheading Medusa, a hideous woman-faced Gorgon whose hair was turned to snakes and anyone that looked at her was turned to stone. Perseus stands naked except for a sash and winged sandals, triumphant on top of the body of Medusa with her snakey head in his raised hand. The body of Medusa spews blood from her severed neck. The bronze sculpture and Medusa's head turns men to stone and is appropriately surrounded by three huge marble statues of men: Hercules, David, and later Neptune. Cellini breathed new life into the piazza visitor through his new use of bronze in Perseus and the head of Medusa and the motifs he used to respond to the previous sculpture in the piazza. If one examines the sculpture from the back, you can see the self-image of the sculptor Cellini on the backside of Perseus' helmet.
The sculpture is thought to be the first statue since the classical age where the base included a figurative sculpture forming an integral part of the work.
Perseo con la cabeza de Medusa, también denominada el Perseo de Cellini, es una escultura realizada en bronce por Benvenuto Cellini. Es considerada una de las obras cumbre de la escultura manierista italiana y una de las estatuas más famosas de la Piazza della Signoria en Florencia, Italia.
Desde el primer momento, el artista sabía cuál iba a ser el emplazamiento de su estatua.
La escultura es una representación del mito griego, donde Polidectes quería deshacerse de Perseo para seducir a su madre, Dánae. Así que un día le explicó que las Gorgonas eran horrendas y monstruosas, sobre todo Medusa. Polidectes ordenó a Perseo que fuera en busca de Medusa y que le cortara la cabeza, y así obedeció Perseo. Se fue de Grecia hasta Sicilia, donde dos hadas le dieron un espejo con el que se protegería de la imagen de Medusa, una espada para cortar su cabeza, un saco para guardarla, unas sandalias aladas para que pudiera volar y un casco que lo hiciera invisible al usarlo. Al cumplir su mandato, de la sangre de Medusa nació un Pegaso en el que se fue volando.
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Italia - Pisa - Baptisterio
The Pisa Baptistery of St. John is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical building in Pisa, Italy, it is the largest one in Italy. Construction started in 1152 to replace an older baptistery, and when it was completed in 1363, it became the second building, in chronological order, in the Piazza dei Miracoli, near the Duomo di Pisa and the cathedral's free-standing campanile, the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. The baptistery was designed by Diotisalvi, whose signature can be read on two pillars inside the building, with the date 1153.
Constructed on the same unstable sand as the tower and cathedral, the Baptistery leans 0.6 degrees toward the cathedral. Originally the shape of the Baptistery, according to the project by Diotisalvi, was different. It was perhaps similar to the church of Holy Sepulchre in Pisa, with its pyramidal roof. After the death of the architect, Nicola Pisano continued the work, changing the style to the more modern Gothic one. Also an external roof was added giving the shape of a cupola. As a side effect of the two roofs, the pyramidal inner one and the domed external one, the interior is acoustically perfect, making of that space a resonating chamber.
The exterior of the dome is clad with lead sheets on its east side (facing the cathedral) and red tiles on its west side (facing the sea), giving a half grey and half red appearance from the south
El Baptisterio de Pisa, dedicado a San Juan el Bautista, está frente a la catedral en el extremo occidental de la Piazza dei Miracoli. Es el mayor de Italia y el baptisterio independiente más reconocido del mundo.
El redondo edificio románico comenzó a construirse en 1152, en sustitución de un antiguo baptisterio más pequeño que estaba situado donde se ubica el camposanto, y se concluyó en 1363. Se inauguró en el mes de agosto según lo que reza la inscripción: MCLIII Mense August fundata fuit haec («En el mes de agosto de 1153 fue aquí fundada...»
Fue el segundo edificio de la plaza en erigirse después de la catedral y antes de la torre. Se construyó en estilo románico por un arquitecto conocido como Deustesalvet («Diostesalve»), quien trabajó también en la iglesia del Santo Sepulcro en la ciudad. Su nombre está mencionado en un pilar interior, como Diotosalvi magister. La construcción, sin embargo, no terminó hasta el siglo XIV, cuando la loggia, la planta superior y la cúpula fueron añadidos en estilo gótico por Nicola y Giovanni Pisano y Cellino di Nese.
Cimentada sobre el mismo suelo arenoso que la torre, el baptisterio está inclinado 0,6 grados hacia la catedral.
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Italia - Florencia - Catedral de Santa Maria del Fiore
By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 feet) high, 9.2 metres (30.2 feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.
The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.
The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above the floor and spanning 44 metres (144 ft), there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.
Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.
Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, 4 metres (13 ft) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.
A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.
The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and 30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.
A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.
Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model. He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5 metres (376 ft). This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.
The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.
Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".
The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.
A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.
The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.
La cúpula de Santa María del Fiore o cúpula de Santa María de la Flor, también conocida como cúpula de Brunelleschi o cúpula del Duomo de Florencia, constituye la cubierta del crucero de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore de Florencia. Fue la cúpula más grande del mundo tras la caída del imperio romano y se considera todavía la mayor jamás realizada en albañilería. Fue ideada, proyectada y construida por Filippo Brunelleschi, quien inició con esta obra el Renacimiento italiano y florentino en arquitectura. Está considerada como la construcción más importante edificada en Europa desde la época romana, debido a la relevancia fundamental que ha desempeñado para el desarrollo posterior de la arquitectura y de la concepción moderna de la construcción.
La cúpula tiene una forma apuntada y está formada por ocho caras o paños ojivales, cubiertos con teja de barro rojo y bordeados por ocho nervios de piedra blanca. Toda la estructura descansa sobre un tambor también octogonal, perforado por ocho óculos para la iluminación del interior. Los nervios convergen en un anillo octogonal superior, coronado por una linterna, elemento que también colabora en la entrada de luz. El interior está constituido por dos casquetes o domos, uno interior y otro exterior, construidos con ladrillo dispuesto en forma de espina de pez. Están conectados entre sí por medio de una retícula interior formada por costillas y nervaduras, que sostiene la cúpula y colabora en su estabilidad. El hueco que queda entre ambos casquetes forma un espacio por el que se asciende hasta la linterna. El exterior del tambor está revestido con mármoles polícromos y con una balaustrada incompleta que solo se construyó en una de sus caras. La cara interna de la cúpula está decorada con pinturas al fresco y al temple que representan el Juicio Final.
Las proporciones del conjunto son monumentales. La altura máxima de la cúpula es de 116.50 metros, el diámetro máximo del casquete interior es de 45.5 metros y el del exterior, de 54.8 metros. La base de las impostas se encuentra a 55 metros del suelo. El tambor, de 13 metros de altura y 43 de anchura, se sitúa a 54 metros del suelo. El casquete interior tiene un espesor en su base de 2.20 metros, que disminuye hasta los 2 metros en la cúspide, mientras que el casquete exterior tiene un espesor que pasa de un metro a 0.40 metros. El anillo superior de cierre de la cúpula se encuentra a 86.70 metros del suelo. La linterna tiene 6 metros de diámetro y 21 de altura. Los paños trapezoidales miden 17.50 metros de longitud y tienen una altura de 32.65 metros. El peso estimado total de la cúpula es de unas 30 000 toneladas y se calcula que se necesitaron para su construcción más de 4 millones de ladrillos.
Sus enormes dimensiones hicieron inviable el empleo de los métodos constructivos tradicionales mediante cimbras, lo cual ha favorecido la especulación de diversas teorías sobre la técnica constructiva empleada. Brunelleschi no dejó registro de ningún dibujo, maqueta o esbozo que indicara el procedimiento utilizado en la edificación de la cúpula.
Las obras de construcción de la cúpula tuvieron una duración de 16 años, desde 1420 hasta 1436. En 1446 se inició la construcción de la linterna, que fue terminada en 1461. El revestimiento exterior del tambor se ejecutó entre 1512 y 1515, y la decoración pictórica del interior de la cúpula se prolongó desde 1572 hasta 1579.
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