ⓒRebecca Bugge, All Rights Reserved
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This building is the National Monument of Victor Emmanuel II. It is also known as Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland) and Il Vittoriano. It was built to honour the first king of the unified Italy - but it is today mostly known from being cumbersome and big and ugly, and a lot of older buildings were destroyed to make room for this thing.
It was designed by Giuseppe Sacconi. The work was begun in 1885, inaugurated in 1911 and finished in 1935.